Posts Tagged ‘drug testing’

Opiate Drug Testing FAQ

Friday, December 18th, 2009

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. Urine Analysis
    1. Detection Periods in Urine
  2. Hair Testing
  3. Drug Cutoff Concentrations
  4. Substances and conditions which can cause a false positive
  5. Buy Opiate Drug Testing Kit

Urine Analysis

The standard “NIDA 5″ drug test includes testing for cannabinoids, cocaine, amphetamines, phencyclidine (PCP), and opiates. Standard laboratory tests for opiates are performed by immunoassay. Results are confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

The guidelines for positive test results are set by a government organization called the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Association (SAMHSA). The target analyte for the standard opiate drug test is morphine, which has a cutoff of 2,000 ng/mL. Additionally, the detection level of the initial screen (immunoassay) for 6-acetylmorphine, a metabolite of heroin, is 10 ng/ml. The GC/MS test, which is required to announce a positive result, also has a cutoff of 10 ng/ml. In other words, the level of opiates in the body must be above this level on both the immunoassay and GC/MS tests to qualify as a positive result.

A standard urine analysis will detect the presence of morphine, codeine, and 6-acetylmorphine. The body breaks down heroin into all three of these substances in the body. The presence of codeine is may indicate heroin, morphine, or codeine use. The ratio of codeine to morphine present in the body can help determine the origin substance, though it is rarely a factor. The test companies do not distinguish between codeine and heroin. Quite simply, a positive result is a positive result. Other opiates not metabolized into the three aforementioned chemicals are not detectable in a standard five-panel drug test.

Typically, low-to-moderate use of oxycodone will not cause a positive result; however, high dose oxycodone use has been reported linked to positive results. Hydrocodone is not converted into morphine or codeine; thus, it is not detectable. However, some testing facilities routinely test for hydrocodone due to its availability and popularity. Although less common, testing facilities have the capability to test for buprenorphine, but it will not cause a positive result in a standard drug screening.

Detection Periods in Urine

DRUG
DETECTION PERIOD
STANDARD DRUG TEST
EXTENDED DRUG TEST
Source: Erowid.org
Buprenorphine
3-30 days
NO
RARELY
Codeine
3-4 days
YES
YES
Dihydrocodeine
3-4 days
NO
SOMETIMES
Heroin
1-4 days
YES
YES
Hydrocodone
3-4 days
NO
SOMETIMES
Hydromorphone
3-4 days
NO
NO
Meperidine
4-24 hours
YES
YES
Morphine
84+ hours
YES
YES
Oxycodone
3-4 days
NO
RARELY
Tramadol
4-5 days
NO
NO

Hair Testing

Hair testing is one of the least invasive methods of testing for drugs. When a drug is ingested, it circulates in a person’s bloodstream, which in turn, nourishes growing hair follicles. As a result, traces of the drug is stored in each piece of hair. The average rate of growth for human hair is about one-half of an inch per month. The typical hair drug test utilizes a 1.5 inch piece of hair, which results in the individual’s drug history for the past 90 days. It takes anywhere from 5-7 days for a drug to be detectable using a hair test.

Substances and Conditions which can cause false positives

  • Diabetes
  • Dextromethorphan (DXM – in most over-the-counter cough medications)
    • Nyquil
    • Vicks Formula 44
  • Kidney disease
  • Kidney infection
  • Liver disease
  • Poppy seeds
  • Prescription painkillers
  • Various quinolones & antibiotics

Drug Cutoff Concentrations

Initial test analyte Initial test cutoff concentration Confirmatory test analyte Confirmatory test cutoff concentration
Source: Analytes and Their Cutoffs (SAMHSA)
Marijuana metabolites 50 ng/mL Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCA) 15 ng/mL
Cocaine metabolites 150 ng/mL Benzoylecgonine 100 ng/mL
Opiate metabolites (codeine/morphine) 2,000 ng/mL Codeine, Morphine 2,000 ng/mL
6-acetylmorphine 10 ng/mL 6-acetylmorphine 10 ng/mL
Phencyclidine 25 ng/mL Phencyclidine 25 ng/mL
Amphetamines (AMP/MAMP) 500 ng/mL Amphetamine, Methamphetamine 250 ng/mL
MDMA 500 ng/mL MDMA, MDA, MDEA 250 ng/mL

Buy Opiate Drug Testing Kit

Share and Enjoy

  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Delicious
  • LinkedIn
  • StumbleUpon
  • Add to favorites
  • Email
  • RSS